Neuromedin U receptors Introduction BPS
In this case, one can see a simple MS/MS spectrum, which signals can be easily assigned to the corresponding structural fragments of the linearized peptide. The past several decades have witnessed the increasing use of photoredox catalysts for the development of site-selective, functional-group-specific conjugation of proteins due to their biocompatibility and facile use under mild conditions. Fadeyi’s group recently reported the use of a flavin-based cofactor, riboflavin tetraacetate (RFT, 123), as a photocatalyst to initiate the Tyr-specific protein conjugation with a phenol-containing tag.129 A C–C bond is formed selectively between the phenol rings of Tyr and the tag molecule at the orthogonal position of the phenol. A study of the reaction mechanism showed that this conjugation process started with photoexcitation of the flavin catalyst to its singlet excited state by blue LED illumination, which was followed by the intersystem crossing to produce the triplet excited state. The triplet excited state of flavin then oxidized both the Tyr in the protein and the phenol group in the tag, generating two molecules of phenoxyl radicals. These two radicals could further undergo radical recombination and subsequent rearomatization to yield a C–C cross-linking between the two phenol rings (Fig. 30a).
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- Peptides that show some similarity to NmU including the neuromedins B, C, K, and N, as well as neurotensin, ghrelin, motilin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and pancreatic polypeptide were inactive [61,102,119].
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Binding of αvβ3 Integrin-Specific Radiotracers Is Modulated by Both Integrin Expression Level and Activation Status
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Considering these findings, the robustness of the reaction to the presence of other amino acids is more difficult to discern, since the authors failed to determine the efficiency of the Lys–Tyr stapling process in peptide systems where Tyr and the amino acid under assessment were separated by the same number of amino acids from Lys. Thus, the only conclusion that one could draw from the data reported by Li and collaborators is that the side chains of Arg, His and Met are not affected during the Lys–Tyr stapling when they are either contiguous to Lys or separated by more amino acids from Lys than the nearest Tyr reactive pair. The presence of a Cys distant to the [Lys–Tyr] fragment does not interfere with the stapling, but a Cys closer to Lys than Tyr to Lys competes for the formation of a linked product (–NH–CH2–S–). Fortunately, this product is easily hydrolyzed by running the reaction in presence of a small amount of water (5%), hence posing no further problem. In the case of Trp, it did not cross-link with Lys when simultaneously placed at the same amino acid distance from Lys as Tyr. However, a portion of the Lys–Tyr stapled product was modified with a methyl group at the N-heterocyclic atom of Trp.